When your parents were young, people could
buy cigarettes and smoke pretty much anywhere - even in hospitals! Ads for cigarettes
were all over the place. Today we're more aware about how bad smoking is for
our health. Smoking is restricted or banned in almost all public places and
cigarette companies are no longer allowed to advertise on buses or trains,
billboards, TV, and in many magazines.
Almost everyone knows that smoking causes cancer, emphysema, and heart disease;
that it can shorten your life by 14 years or more; and that the habit can cost
a smoker thousands of dollars a year. So how come people are still lighting up!
Disposing of the rubbish we produce every day is a major problem in
cities around the world. In Britain, 85% of waste is disposed by landfill, a
system which is supposed to prevent pollution, since waste is buried in the
ground. This method is far from perfect; however, finding new areas is becoming
difficult. Recycling is an increasingly popular way of getting rid of waste,
and in Britain a target of recycling half of all domestic recyclable waste has
been set for the coming years.
A city that has solved its waste disposal problem in
an unusual way is Machida, in Japan. They have developed a totally new approach
to waste disposal. The key to the operation is public co-operation. Families
must divide their rubbish into six categories.
rubbish that can be easily burnt (combustible), such
as kitchen and garden waste.
non-combustible rubbish such as small electric appliances, plastic tools and
products that are toxic or that cause pollution, such as batteries.
bottles and glass containers that can be recycled.
metal containers that can be recycled.
large items such as furniture and bicycles.
T he items in categories 1-5 are collected on different days; (large items are
only collected on request.) Then the rubbish is taken to a centre that looks
like a clean new office building or hospital. Inside, special equipment is used
to sort and process the waste. Almost everything can be reused. Kitchen or
garden waste becomes fertilizer; combustible items are burnt to produce
electricity; metal containers and bottles are recycled and old furniture,
clothing and other useful items are cleaned, repaired and resold cheaply or
given away. The work provides employment for disabled people and gives them a
chance to learn new skills.
Nowadays, officials from cities around the world visit Machida to see whether
they can use some of these ideas and techniques to solve their own waste
Many cities around the world today are heavily polluted. Careless
manufacturing methods employed by some industries and absence of consumer
demand for environmentally safe products have been behind the pollution
problem. One result is that millions of tons of glass, paper, plastic and metal
containers are produced, and these are difficult to dispose of.
However, today more and more consumers are choosing ‘green’ and demanding
that the products they buy are safe for the environment. Before they buy a
product, they ask questions like these, Will this product damage the ozone
layer?, Is this package of any danger to the environment? Or Can this metal
container be used once?
A recent study showed that two out of five adults now consider the
Environmental safety of a product before they buy it. This means that
companies must now change the way they make and sell their products to make
sure that they are ‘green’, that is, friendly to the environment.
Only a few years ago, it was impossible to find green products in
supermarkets, but now there are hundreds. Some supermarket products have
tickets on them to show that the product is green. Some companies have made the
manufacturing of clean and safe products their main selling point and insist on
it in their advertising.
The concern of a safer and cleaner environment is making companies rethink
how they do business. The public will no longer accept the old attitude of Buy
it, Use it and then Throw it away.
The migration of skilled individuals from developing countries has typically
been considered to be costly for the sending country, due to lost investments
in education, high fiscal costs and labour market distortions. Economic theory,
however, raises the possibility of a beneficial brain drain primarily through
improved incentives to acquire human capital. Our survey of empirical and
theoretical work shows under what circumstances a developing country can
benefit from skilled migration. It argues that the sectoral aspects of
migration and screening of migrants in the receiving country are of major
importance in determining the welfare implications of the brain drain. These
issues, as well as the size of the sending country, duration of migration and
the effect of diaspora populations, should be addressed in future empirical
work on skilled migration .
Spanish officials estimate that about 1.000 people have downed attempting to
enter Europe by crossing the 10-mile wide strait of Gibraltar in the past six
years , Spanish officials say that morocco is tolerating the exit of small
In 1996. several hundred illegal immigrants .most Moroccans were picked up by
the police and coast guard on the southern shores of Spain , morocco’s newly
appointed prime mister .Aberahmane youssoufi . blamed illegal immigration on
poverty , and said that policeman and walls are not solution to the illegal
migration ,which should be handed with realism in order to find human solutions
On February, the interior ministers of morocco and Italy signed a convention to
cooperate in the fight against drug smuggling and illegal immigration the
Italian interior minister said that a lot of Moroccans live legally in Italy
.the largest foreign community in the country.
Hand in hand between Morocco and Italy to fight drugs , illegal immigration .
The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected
com****r networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard
Internet Protocol (IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists
of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks,
which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail,
online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other documents
of the world wide web.
The USSR's launch of Sputnik spurred the United States to create the Advanced
Research Projects Agency, known as ARPA, in February 1958 to regain a
technological lead. ARPA created the Information Processing Technology
Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic Ground Environment
(SAGE) program, which had networked country-wide radar systems together for the
first time. J. C. R. Licklider was selected to head the IPTO, and saw universal
networking as a potential unifying human revolution.
Licklider had moved from the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory at Harvard University
to MIT in 1950, after becoming interested in information technology. At MIT, he
served on a committee that established Lincoln Laboratory and worked on the
SAGE project. In 1957 he became a Vice President at BBN, where he bought the
first production PDP-1 com****r and conducted the first public demonstration of
At the IPTO, Licklider recruited Lawrence Roberts to head a project to
implement a network, and Roberts based the technology on the work of Paul Baran
who had written an exhaustive study for the U.S. Air Force that recommended
packet switching (as opposed to circuit switching) to make a network highly
robust and survivable. After much work, the first node went live at UCLA on
October 29, 1969 on what would be called the ARPANET, one of the
"eve" networks of today's Internet. Following on from this, the
British Post Office, Western Union International and Tymnet collaborated to
create the first international packet switched network, referred to as the
International Packet Switched Service (IPSS), in 1978. This network grew from
Europe and the US to cover Canada, Hong Kong and Australia by 1981.
The first TCP/IP-wide area network was operational by January 1, 1983, when the
United States' National Science Foundation (NSF) constructed a university
network backbone that would later become the NSFNet.
It was then followed by the opening of the network to commercial interests in
1985. Important, separate networks that offered gateways into, then later
merged with, the NSFNet include Usenet, BITNET and the various commercial and
educational networks, such as X.25, Compuserve and JANET. Telenet (later called
Sprintnet) was a large privately-funded national com****r network with free
dial-up access in cities throughout the U.S. that had been in operation since
the 1970s. This network eventually merged with the others in the 1990s as the
TCP/IP protocol became increasingly popular. The ability of TCP/IP to work over
these pre-existing communication networks, especially the international X.25
IPSS network, allowed for a great ease of growth. Use of the term
"Internet" to describe a single global TCP/IP network originated
around this time
A is the consequence of when a potential natural hazard becomes a physical
event (e.g. volcanic eruption, earthquake, landslide) and this interacts with
human activities. Human vulnerability, caused by the lack of planning, lack of
appropriate emergency management or the event being unexpected, leads to
financial, structural, and human losses. The resulting loss depends on the
capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster, their
resilience. This understanding is concentrated in the formulation:
"disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability". A natural
hazard will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas without
vulnerability, e.g. strong earthquakes in uninhabited areas. The term natural
has consequently been dis****d because the events simply are not hazards or
disasters without human involvement-
WAR is one of the wost crime that pople have ever made to the humanity. that's
why we should know why some ediot poeple can't stand leaving in peace becuase
the best thing that can draw the smile on every one's face is the peace. but in
reality we have a deferent image to the world, we see that no one want to respect
the right of other or want's to enslave poeple or take there weals, and they
make some silly reasons to get what they want exactly like what happend to
our brothers in iraq.
war also creat a very bad destarction and ruin in everywhere.
and from the main point we can say that poepl in stean of burning world they
have to to learn how to leave in peace and creat the happiness instead of hate
Television has became part of our every day life .what are its advantages and
On the one hand, TV has became the most influential means of the mass media
because it has both sound and picture .it's also the most popular source of
information education and international , in brief TV brings the whole word to
One the other hand TV develops passive and lazy viewers .it also prevents
communication between the members of the family besides students don't their
homwork and may became aggressive when they watch films of violence
I think that the best things to relief from stress is to watch some sitcoms or
hear something funny like jokes …person should develop his sense of humor and
he should be cool , Comic and optimistic, because some expert of mental .health
have noted that we can't imagine going through a day without laughter.Humor
will make every part of your life better.It will help you trough difficult
times and it will help you make the good times even letter, also i twill
attract good people and good situations to you.
The concept of human rights has existed under several names in European thought
for many centuries, at least since the time of King John of England. After the
king violated a number of ancient laws and customs by which England had been
governed, his subjects forced him to sign the Magna Carta, or Great Charter,
which enumerates a number of what later came to be thought of as human rights.
Among them were the right of the church to be free from governmental
interference, the rights of all free citizens to own and inherit property and
be free from excessive taxes. It established the right of widows who owned
property to choose not to remarry, and established principles of due process
and equality before the law. It also contained provisions forbidding bribery
and official misconduct.
The political and religious traditions in other parts of the world also
proclaimed what have come to be called human rights, calling on rulers to rule
justly and compassionately, and delineating limits on their power over the
lives, property, and activities of their citizens.
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Europe several philosophers
proposed the concept of "natural rights," rights belonging to a
person by nature and because he was a human being, not by virtue of his
citizenship in a particular country or membership in a particular religious or
ethnic group. This concept was vigorously debated and rejected by some
philosophers as baseless. Others saw it as a formulation of the underlying
principle on which all ideas of citizens' rights and political and religious
liberty were based.
In the late 1700s two revolutions occurred which drew heavily on this concept.
In 1776 most of the British colonies in North America proclaimed their
independence from the British Empire in a document which still stirs feelings,
and debate, the U.S. Declaration of Independence
Globalization refers to increasing global connectivity, integration and
interdependence in the economic, social, technological, cultural, political,
and ecological spheres. Globalization is an umbrella term and is perhaps best
understood as a unitary process inclusive of many sub-processes (such as
enhanced economic interdependence, increased cultural influence, rapid advances
of information technology, and novel governance and geopolitical challenges)
that are increasingly binding people and the biosphere more tightly into one
There are several definitions and all usually mention the increasing connectivity
of economies and ways of life across the world. The Encyclopedia Britannica
says that globalization is the "process by which the experience of
everyday life ... is becoming standardized around theworld." While some
scholars and observers of globalization stress convergence of patterns of
production and consumption and a resulting homogenization of culture, others
stress that globalization has the potential to take many diverse forms
Racism or racialism is a form of race,
especially the belief that one race is superior to another. Racism may be
expressed individually and consciously, through explicit thoughts, feelings, or
acts, or socially and unconsciously, through institutions that promote
inequality between races.
In the 19th century many legitimized racist beliefs and practices through
scientific theories about biological differences among races. Today, most
scientists have rejected the biological basis of race or the validity of
"race" as a scientific concept. Racism, then, becomes discrimination
based on alleged race. Racists themselves usually do believe that humans are
divided into different races.
There are two main definitions of racism today. One of them states that racism
is dicrimination based on alleged race, the other - newer - one states that
racism has started to include also discrimination based on religion or culture
right of women
Nowadays we take it for granted that women have the same rights as men before
the first world war few people believed this.
As far as work was concerned there were jobs wich were regarded as women`s jobs
and other wiche were regarded as men`s jobs. Women`s jobs were generally lower
paid as men`s. Men did almost all the heavy jobs in industry or in transport.
Women had jobs like dress-making,cleanning or worked as servants.
Women`s main role was as being to raise childeren and look for their home.
Women were not expected to take position of leaderschip. Women were not even
allowed to vote in elections.
Before the war some women had been struggling to achieve greater equality with
men. The most famous of these had been the suffragettes who stagged a violent
campaign against the govervment from 1905 to 1914 trying to achieve the right
to vote.however, at the outbreak of war, the were still no near to success.
Many men argued that women were unsuited to such responsibility that women
could not be trusted to vote sensibly that women should not concern themselves
with such male activities and voting